by David Cycleback
The Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) is attempting to both increase general UU membership and greatly increase racial minority membership. While the goals are admirable, the UUA’s approach is ill-conceived and likely to fail.
Unitarian Universalism (UU) is a tiny, eccentric, politically far left and predominantly white church with dwindling membership. It is far whiter than the United States population and than most Christian and conservative churches, including the Catholics, Jehovah’s Witnesses, the Anglican Church and Mormons. While UU has advanced from its heterosexual patriarchal roots, the lack of racial diversity has been a source of angst to many UUs who see themselves as social justice vanguards. (UUA 2010) (Braestrup 2017) (Pew Research Center 2015)
Doubling concerns, according to its last census in 2020, UU membership was at its lowest in twenty-three years. Despite the country’s population increasing seventy-five percent, UU’s membership is nineteen percent smaller than when it was formed in 1961 and has shrunk since introducing anti-racism initiatives starting in the last twenty-five years. (UUA 2020) (Loehr 2005) (Halsted 2019) (UUA 1997)
The current national UU leadership has expressed that it aspires to both increase UU membership and greatly increase racial minority membership by moving UU even further to the political left into radicalism. This essay explains how these goals can conflict and how the current national UU’s attempts may achieve neither. (Frederick-Gray 2021) (CLFUU 2017)
UU’s Traditional Culture
As with most churches, Unitarian Universalism has had a particular demographic and culture. UU is associated with its upper middle class, educated, Puritan, New England Unitarian roots. Famous Unitarians included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, Susan B. Anthony, Thomas Jefferson, Frank Lloyd Wright, Kurt Vonnegut and Julian Jaynes. The Collegeville Pennsylvania fellowship is named after Thomas Paine.
Martin Luther King Jr. said Sunday at 11 a.m. is the most segregated time in America, with people traditionally tending to congregate with their own demographic. Some racial minorities have said they are drawn to UU’s beliefs but have a hard time fitting in with the dominant culture. One congregant wrote, “I don’t think segregation is intentional. It’s a matter of music, demographics, age, culture, worship style, etc.” (Blake 2010) (Grossman 2015) (8th Principle 2021)
Anyone who attends a UU congregation knows they can have a controlled, insular, polite, Northern European-American culture. As a native of Wisconsin and with many Minnesotan relatives, I’ve commented that the culture of the Seattle UU congregation I attend is “very Scandinavian.” I am neurodivergent (autistic and bipolar) and Jewish and from personal experience understand how people who are different can feel frustrated and misunderstood in a UU congregation’s culture. I agree with the UUA that UUs should work on being educated about different cultures and peoples and how to be welcoming to minorities who are attracted to UU’s beliefs.
There have been attempts to become more racially, ethnically and culturally diverse, including diversifying service styles and music, having racial justice education and recruiting more minorities into seminary. Most congregations have participated in the Beloved Congregations and White Supremecy Teach-In programs. (McCardle 2017) (WSUU 2018)
It’s Not Just Racial Minorities: UU Culture Is Unwelcoming to the Majority in Most Demographics
Usually omitted in the argument that UU culture is unattractive to most racial minorities– and in the mind of some is, thus, “racist”– is the fact that UU is unattractive to most whites. Many outsiders would describe the current UU as a counterculture. I once wrote, “Yes, It is true that UU is unattractive to most blacks. It is also unattractive to most whites, Asians, Hispanics, Middle Easterners, Jews and every other race and ethnicity. That’s why it’s so small.” My white libertarian friend from Texas would follow the UU’s Principles and is a fan of the Unitarian psychologist Julian Jaynes. He told me he could stand about ten seconds of UU’s brand of identity politics and politically correct language.
I have talked to atheists who I thought might be attracted to a church that has atheists and shares their political persuasion. The majority of the small sample had no interest in joining a UU congregation because they don’t want to belong to any organized church, even one that has atheists and agnostics, and attend services that have a church-like style. Even to these politically left atheists, a “church for atheists” was an incongruous concept.
Many working-class and working-class background UUs have long complained about classicism and vocation/education elitism in UU and UU congregations. This remains. Economics professor and social critic Glenn Loury says that most proponents of the prevailing UUA-style social justice and identity politics are university-educated “cultural elites” who are often out of touch with and even dismissive of white and non-white working-class and poor American cultures and views. (Loury 2022)
A complaint about the recent years’ narrowing of UU’s politics is that it excludes political moderates and conservatives who would embrace the UU’s Principles. There is no political litmus test to be a UU, and there is no reason that many moderates and conservatives who believe in “the inherent worth and dignity of every person” can’t belong to a UU or other religiously liberal church. UU Minister Rev. Sean Neil-Baron put it “We are a liberal religion not a religion for liberals,” and there used to be an active group for conservative UUs. (UUA 2017) (Morgenstern 2020)
I know numerous UUs who have said they wish their congregational membership had a broader political spectrum. Many UUs are rotely dismissive and even openly disdainful of conservatives, often just assuming all UU congregants share their progressive views. A more conservative ex-UU wrote, “I left the Unitarian Church several years ago when I came to realize that it is little more than a liberal-left wing political advocacy group masquerading as a religion.”
Moving Further Left Makes UU Only More Unappealing to Most Minorities
About fourteen percent of the country is black. It is simply the statistical reality that if every church wants to be, say, forty percent black, that is impossible. UU, in its traditional or current state, will not be the type of church that attracts large swaths of blacks and other racial and ethnic minorities.
In her 2017 essay Where Are We Headed?, UU Minister Rev. Kate Braestrup wrote that UU would have to become more conservative and welcoming to a broader range of political views to attract many minorities who are generally more conservative than UU. (Braestrup 2017)
According to a 2020 Pew Research Center Poll, 65 percent of black Democrats identify as moderate or conservative, and only 37 percent of Hispanic Democrats identify as politically liberal. By a wide margin, whites are the most likely to be in the far left of the Democratic Party. An Indian immigrant told me that he no longer felt welcome or heard in his UU congregation due his more conservative viewpoints. (Pew Research Center 2021) (Pew Research Center 2020) (Winston 2020)
Taking a variety of fringe political positions unpopular with most minorities, the UUA has called for the abolishment of police and for congregations to quit calling the police. Polls have shown that a large majority of blacks want the same or more numbers of police in their communities and that black and Hispanic Democrats are more supportive than white Democrats of increasing police presence. Civil rights leader and Democratic Party Whip James Clayburn said that the “Defund the Police” sloganeering cost Democrats seats in the 2020 election and harmed the Black Lives Matter cause. (UUA 2020) (Gallup 2020) (Parker & Hurst 2021) (Hirsi 2021) (Brown 2020)
The national UU and UU groups have aligned themselves with fringe anti-Zionist Jewish groups and movements that are out of step with majority Jewish views and even labeled as antisemitic by mainstream Jewish organizations. (McCardle 2016) (Leblang 2017) (ADL 2015)
Multiple national polls have shown that not only are substantially large majorities of all racial demographics against politically correct culture and the politically correct language adopted by the UUA, UU World, UU ministers and many congregations (BIPOC, Latinx, etc.), but the top three are American Indians (88%), Latinos (87%) and Asians (82%). Seventy-five percent of black Americans were against PC culture and language. (ThinkNow 2019) (Monk 2018) (McWhorter 2022)
Linguist and black-English expert John McWhorter wrote that the term “BIPOC” is unpopular with most racial minorities. A Latino pollster found that “When it came to ‘Latinx,’ there was near unanimity. Despite its usage by academics and cultural influencers, 98% of Latinos prefer other terms to describe their ethnicity. Only 2% of our respondents said the label accurately describes them, making it the least popular ethnic label among Latinos.” Some Latinos have called white people using Latinx “Anglo-Imperialist,’’ “Anglicizing our language,” “culturally ignorant,” and “English speakers imposing their social norms on other cultures.” (Thinknow 2018) (Douthat 2019) (McWhorter 2022) (Cunningham 2017)
Common sense says that a white-dominant church or congregation is not going to attract or be welcoming to most racial and ethnic minorities by adopting unpopular and sometimes even offending language and political positions.
Rev. Braestrup wrote: “Despite our decades of self-flagellating attempts to scour away every vestige of racism from our bleeding hearts, religions that have never made the slightest effort to ‘dismantle white supremacy’ aren’t just more successful at attracting congregants of all colors, they are — according to our own preferred measures — far less racist . . . . The statistics, in other words, strongly imply that anyone who wishes to belong to a non-racist church should depart Unitarian Universalism and join the Assemblies of God. Or– easier still– become a Catholic.” (Braestrup 2017)
While UUs like to think of themselves as independent thinkers and open-minded, I find them to be as much of groupthinkers and crowd followers as in any religious denomination. UU spaces are often political and ideological bubbles, unaware of or dismissing different viewpoints including from minorities. A UU said that to many UUs multiculturalism means “People who think like us but come in different colors.” I replied, “Multiculturalism means they aren’t all going to think like you, and many will think things you very much disagree with.”
UU leaders often hold up the goals of multiculturalism and diveristy. However, they don’t really want multiculturalism and diversity. A multicultural and diverse church would contain diverse political, social and ideological ideas and values. With their new expectations of political and ideological conformity, national UU leaders are trying to create a monoculture that, ironically, will exclude most racial, ethnic and other minorities.
The UUA’s efforts are not just about attracting minorities to UU but being more inclusive and empowering of minorities already in UU. The latter are important but cause a conflict.
Racial minorities in UU tend to be much further to the political left, more radical and identity politics-centric than the general racial minority population. Also, UU advertises itself as a “safe space,” so attracts from the small percentage of minorities who psychologically want or need safe spaces. Many white UUs and white progressives are under the mistaken impression that radical minority activists are proxies for their entire demographics. This often is because UU leaders and idealogues misleading say that the positions are the majority views or the only “authentic voice” of minorities. UUs are learning about race relations from a tiny group that is unrepresentative of the larger minority groups. (Hirsi 2021) (Loury 2021)
Doing what “BIPOC of UU” want will make UU even less appealing to most outside racial minorities. The radicalization of UU may not only not attract many racial minorities to UU but likely will lead to many religious liberals leaving.
The conflict is exemplified by the word Latinx. UU works to be LGBT+ inclusive and the UUA, UU World and many UU congregations and groups commonly use the term Latinx. Latinx is simultaneously seen as gender-inclusive and is off-putting to a majority of Latinos. (Douthat 2019)
The use of Latinx demonstrates that UU aspires for the diversity and inclusion of numerous minority identities, not just racial and ethnic. In both practice and theory, this is a conundrum because minority cultures and demographics are never in exact alignment with each other. That’s why it’s a challenge to create successful multi-cultural and interfaith organizations. People with multiple identities often experience such internal conflicts.
Many Ways to Create and Different Considerations of Diversity
Some UUs are not troubled by the lack of racial diversity. They say that most churches and congregations have particular cultures and demographics, such as Scandinavian Lutheran and Eastern Orthodox congregations, many Muslim and Hindu temples and Jewish synagogues. The least racially diverse American church is the National Baptist Convention with ninety-nine percent black membership. Of the six least racially diverse American churches, three are 90+ percent white and the other three are either 90+ percent black or 90+ percent Asian. With 80 percent of Jews worldwide being Ashkenazi, it’s no surprise that the synagogue I attend is predominantly Ashkenazi. Further, a congregation mostly attracts people from its neighborhood which means the congregation will tend to reflect the demographics of the neighborhood. (Pew Research Center 2015)
As far as attaining diversity and multiculturalism go, there is more than one way to skin a cat. For example, congregations can do interfaith work with other congregations and organizations. A Seattle UU congregation belongs to an interfaith network with members from the neighborhood mosque, Hispanic Catholic congregation and synagogue working together in neighborhood charity work. This type of work involves not only a diversity of races, but of cultures and beliefs.
It is problematic when UUs want ethnic and racial minorities to be part of their church but only if they “think the way we do.” I see a tokenizing and fetishism in focusing strictly on the percentage of skin colors in a congregation, and a pandering in doing whatever it takes to attract people of different skin colors.
UU Minister Rev. Craig Moro wrote, “I suspect one of the things that drives ‘BIPOC’ folks away after a visit or two is that some UUs seem to be trying to ‘collect’ them– to add them to some sort of collection of skins and heads. That would scare me, too!”
An Asian man who quit UU wrote, “The tone of the entire organization has shifted more and more left and privileged as time goes on . . . When a person of color does show up (myself included), it was ridiculous. Our opinions were not valued because they were our opinions, but simply because of the color of our skin. In trying to be more inclusive, the organization became more racist. No non-white person wants to get in a room and watch rich white people flog themselves all day and apologize for transgressions that may or may not have ever happened. It is tiresome and has nothing to do with fellowship. It just makes those members feel better.”
I wonder about UU laity who are so easily and sometimes unquestioningly willing to discard their long-held UU values such as religious liberalism, self-determination, due process, diversity of individual views and paths, and freedom of expression and speech simply because a group of self-anointed authorities in classes and the pulpit instruct them to. It makes me wonder what other values they’d be willing to throw overboard in the name of a cause, because of the color of someone’s skin or to go along with a crowd.
Some UUs say that the object shouldn’t be to blindly fixate on a numbers game of “bringing in minorities” but on making sure congregations and members are welcoming to the racial, ethnic and other minorities who are attracted to UU’s beliefs.
I belong to different communities. These include a mostly white but gender diverse UU congregation, a synagogue, a multi-racial and racial minority-led workplace, my Armenian-Iranian immigrant partner and her family, and a vintage baseball card collecting club that is nearly all white male but with a wide diversity of religious and political beliefs. The combination of these and other relationships is my multi-cultural experience, and I neither expect nor want each to be the same.
The challenge of creating racial diversity and how to attract and maintain minorities in dominant white churches is not an issue just for Unitarian Unitarianism. With challenges, successes and failures, there have been numerous attempts to create multi-racial Christian churches. (Gjelten 2020)
There is no one or objectively correct answer as to what should be achieved or how to achieve it, and any way involves conflicts and trade-offs. A church can’t be all things it wants and doesn’t want to be all things to all people. To gain one valued thing you often have to give up another valued thing, and pleasing one group of people within a community sometimes will turn off another group. Such is the nature of communities, especially in a liberal, pluralistic church.
However, I firmly believe the UUA’s attempt to move UU as a whole further to the left into radicalism, both generally but in particular in the area of identity politics, and to try to create ideological and political homogony will neither attract substantial numbers of racial and ethnic minorities nor expand UU membership. My prediction is that UU membership will fall even more drastically. This is why I submit that the UUA is doomed to fail in meeting its expressed goals.
8th Principle (2021), “Where Did This Come From Originally?”, https://www.8thprincipleuu.org/background
ADL (2015), “BDS: The Global Campaign to Delegitimize Israel”, https://www.adl.org/resources/backgrounders/bds-the-global-campaign-to-delegitimize-israel
Brown M (2020), “Democratic Whip James Clyburn: ‘Defund the police’ cost Democrats seats, hurt Black Lives Matter movement”, https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/politics/2020/11/08/james-clyburn-defund-police-cost-democrats-seats-hurt-black-lives-matter/6216371002/
Blake J (2010), “Why Sunday morning remains America’s most segregated hour”, https://religion.blogs.cnn.com/2010/10/06/why-sunday-morning-remains-americas-most-segregated-hour/
Braestrup K (2017), “Where Are We Headed?”, https://trulyopenmindsandhearts.blog/2017/11/21/where-are-we-headed/
CLFUU (2017), “Intentionally Radical AND Spiritual – The VUU”, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VdVzGNb5SmE
Coyne J (2022), “The annual evolution meeting raises some questions,” https://whyevolutionistrue.com/2022/05/12/the-annual-evolution-meeting-raises-some-questions/
Cunningham V (2017). “The Case for Black English: In his latest book, John McWhorter celebrates the dialect that has become an American lingua franca,” https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/05/15/the-case-for-black-english
Douthat R (2019), “Democrats’ Latinx Problem”, https://www.nytimes.com/2019/11/05/opinion/latinix-warren-democrats.html
Frederick-Gray S (2021), “Sea Change, Not Slow Change”, https://www.uuworld.org/articles/president-fall-2021
Gallup (2020), “Black Americans Want Police to Retain Local Presence”, https://news.gallup.com/poll/316571/black-americans-police-retain-local-presence.aspx
Gjelten T (2020), “Multiracial Congregations May Not Bridge Racial Divide”, https://www.npr.org/2020/07/17/891600067/multiracial-congregations-may-not-bridge-racial-divide
Grossman C (2015), “Sunday Is Still the Most Segregated Day of the Week”, https://www.americamagazine.org/content/all-things/sunday-still-most-segregated-day-week
Halsted J (2019), “My Church is Dying and I’m OK with that”, https://praywithyourfeet.org/2019/12/17/my-church-is-dying-and-im-ok-with-that/
Hirsi I (2021), “Black Residents of Minneapolis Say They Need More Cops—Not Fewer”, https://www.thenation.com/article/politics/minneapolis-police-reform/
Leblang D (2017) “Area Jews ask: Why would a church show an anti-Semitic movie?”, https://www.jewishjournal.org/2017/11/02/area-jews-ask-why-would-a-church-show-an-anti-semitic-movie/
Loehr D (2005), “Why Unitarian Universalism is Dying”, https://files.meadville.edu/files/resources/why-unitarian-universalism-is-dying.pdf
Loury G (2021), “Wrestle not against flesh and blood: OInagural essay of the Journal of Free Black Thought,” https://freeblackthought.substack.com/p/wrestle-not-against-flesh-and-blood?s=r
Loury G (2022), “Why Does Racial Inequality Persist?”, https://glennloury.substack.com/p/why-does-racial-inequality-persist?s=r
Manhattan Institute (2021) “Critical Race Theory: On the New Ideology of Race”, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZuvhrXM3v7U&t=4495s
McArdle E (2016), “Rabbi Jacobs: Why I raised divestment concerns during celebration”, http://uuworld.org/articles/uuaga2016jacobsdivestment
McCardle E (2017),”Two-thirds of UU congregations participate in White Supremacy Teach-In”, https://www.uuworld.org/articles/two-thirds-participate-teach
McWhorter J (2022), “BIPOC is Jargon. That’s OK, and Normal People Don’t Have to Use It”,
Monk Y (2018), “Americans Strongly Dislike PC Culture,”
Morgenstern A (2020), “Conservative Values for Unitarian Universalists”, https://www.uucpa.org/services/conservative-values-for-unitarian-universalists-2/
Parker & Hurst (2021) “Growing share of Americans say they want more spending on police in their area”, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/10/26/growing-share-of-americans-say-they-want-more-spending-on-police-in-their-area/
Pew Research Center (2015), “The most and least racially diverse U.S. religious groups”, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2015/07/27/the-most-and-least-racially-diverse-u-s-religious-groups/
Pew Research Center (2020), “5 facts about black Democrats, https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2020/02/27/5-facts-about-black-democrats/
Pew Research Center (2021) “Facts About the U.S. Black Population”, https://www.pewresearch.org/social-trends/fact-sheet/facts-about-the-us-black-population/
ThinkNow (2019), “Progressive Latino pollster: 98% of Latinos do not identify with “Latinx” label,”
UUA (1997), “Toward an Anti-Racist Unitarian Universalist Association: 1997 Business Resolution”, https://www.uua.org/action/statements/toward-anti-racist-unitarian-universalist-association
UUA (2017), “Conservative Forum for Unitarian Universalists”, https://www.uua.org/offices/organizations/conservative-forum-unitarian-universalists
UUA (2020), “UUA Membership Statistics, 1961-2020”, https://www.uua.org/data/demographics/uua-statistics
UUA (2020), “The Unitarian Universalist Association Says It’s Time to Defund the Police”, https://www.uua.org/pressroom/press-releases/unitarian-universalist-association-says-its-time-defund-police
UU World (2010),”Racial and ethnic diversity of Unitarian Universalists”, https://www.uuworld.org/articles/racial-ethnic-diversity-uus
Winston D (2020), “As Democrats go hard left, Hispanics head to the center”, https://rollcall.com/2021/06/23/as-democrats-go-hard-left-hispanics-head-to-the-center/
WSUU (2018), “Beloved Congregations”, https://wsuu.org/2018/11/07/sign-up-for-beloved-conversations-groups/